Italianate, Renaissance Revival

Italianate and Renaissance Revival of the 19th century looks back to the Renaissance, the rebirth  of interest in classical antiquity that appears first in Italian literature, and then in culture and art in the 14th century. In the 19th century the Picturesque Movement inspires English designers to explore alternatives to classicism, Gothic, and other stylesof the middle ages.

Motifs:

Theses include Pediments, stringcourse, quoins, hood moldings, brackets, columns on porches or verandas, swags, acanthus,  arabesque, and rounded arches. Additional interior motifs are fruit, game, animals, masks, strapwork, Greek key, sphinx, lotus, blossoms, palmettes, urns, roundels, cabochons, pendants, and applied bosses or lozenges.

 

Architecture:

Types of building during this time includes offices, department stores, warehouses, mills, factories, post offices, custom houses, city halls, train stations, and theaters. Residential types inlude mansions, row houses, and urban villas.

  • The floor plans are generally symmetrical and designed for functional purposes
  • Common stringourses on buildings
  • Roofs may be flat or low pitched, tower roofs are hipped or gables
  • Doors  and windows have bold details the second story windows are larger and more dynamic with detail. 
  • Building materials had brick, store, or cast iron as the structural component.

Interiors:

These types of new rooms include entry halls, atriums, courtrooms, or legislative chambers. In resdiential buildings entry halls, parlors, dining rooms, and bedrooms may display Renaissance Revival characteristics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Gothic Revival

Gothic Revival consciously revives Gothic and other aspects of the Middle Ages. Beginning in England about the middle of the 18th century, it challenges the supremacy of Neoclassicism within 50 years. In its earliest manifestations, Gothic Revival applies eclectic architectural motifs to contemporary forms. Following the growth of scholarship, the style begins to develop from medieval prototypes, eventually forming a unique expression indicative of its time. Elements of Gothic revival theories become foundations for later design reform movement.

Motifs:

These inlude pointed arches, pinnacles, battlements, crockets, stained glass, rose windows, trefoils, quatrefoils, cinquefoils, cluster, columns, oak leaves, and heraldic devices.

Crocket

Architecture:

The types of building are mainly churches. By the mid- 19th century , Gothic becomes an accepted style for museums, national monuments, univerisity buildings, town halls, hotels, train stations, and commercial buildings. Residential types were large homes, chateaux, medieveal manor, and cottages.

  • The early style is irregular
  • Roman features
  • More Religious
  • High Victorian becomes more regular
  • Simple outlines
  • Elements from German, Italy, and French medieval style

Interiors:

New spaces include rooms with specific funtions related to the building’s use such as art galleries, conference rooms, offices, and public spae for hotels. Residential spaces include great halls, living rooms, libraries and studies, smoking rooms and chapels.

  • Colors that dominate are crimson, blue, and gold
  • Floors are made of wood or masonry
  • Comtemporary hanging lanterns, chandeliers, and wall sconces are common
  • Two types of ceilings- timber ceilings or flat ceilings
  • Walls receive a variety of treatments

 

Furnishings and Decorative Arts:

Seating

 

Tables

Storage

Bed

Clocks

Paintings

Painted Fabric

 

 

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American Greek Revival, American Empire

  • As an expression od democracy and national culture, America wholeheartedly embraces Greek Revival for numerous structures ranging from banks to courthouses, cottages to mansions. Architectural details derived from Greece, Rome, and Egypt and simple wall treatment signal Grecian interiors.

Greek Revival: Temple forms, the Greek orders, and simple white exteriors define American Greek Revival buildings. Grecian-style interiors in America are plainer and simpler than are those of Europe. Bolder architectural details and walls treated as one expance mark the style.

American Empire: American Empire furniture tends toward greater simplicity than does European, although forms  and ornament derive from classical prototypes as in Europe.

Motifs:

They include egg and dart, bead, and dentil molding, triglyphd and metopes, honeysuckles, anthemions, acanthus leaves, and the fret or key. Interior motifs include sphinxes, battered or pylon forms, paw feet, Egyptian or classical figures, lyres, harps, swans, dolphins, eagles, caryatids, serpents, arabesques. and columns.

Architecture- Public Buildings

Types:

  • Banks
  • Retail Establishments
  • Govenment and public works buildings
  • Offices
  • institutions
  • Colleges
  • Bridges
  • Monuments
  • Memorials

Quincy Market

Merchant’s Exchange

Tresury Building

Tennessee State Capitol

Site Orientation:

  • Designers strive to isolate public buildings

Floor Plans:

  • Plans are usually rectangular and suitable to building function
  • Most are symmetrical and oriented around important circulation spaces
  • Room may vary from square to round

Materials:

  • Usually local stone, granite, marble, and brick
  • Wood appears in more rural areas
  • Public buildings often combine trabeated and arcuated construction by using columns along with vaults and domes.

Facades:

  • Temple fronts depicting the classical image and the Greek orders
  • Most building have porticos on both ends of the building
  • Walls are flat with few projections
  • Scale may be larger than that of the originals

Windows:

  • Rectangular and double hung
  • Arched, round, or Palladian are rare
  • Decortive surrounds – pilasters, lintels, or pediments

Doors:

  • Entrances are important grangly treated with pilsters and columns
  • Tops are flat ot have a pediment
  • Surrounds may be further embellished.

Roofs:

  • Roofs are usually low- pitched gables
  • Some building have flat roofs with balustrades
  •  Domes and cupolas denote important spaces

Architecture- Private Buildings

Types:

  • Common Houses
  • Southern Plantations
  • Row Houses

Texas Governor’s Mansion

Linden Row

Site Orientation:

  • In rural landcapes
  • along tree-line streets in cities of town
  • urban row houses

Floor Plans:

  • Rectangular spaces again define plans
  • Residences have few circular or apsidal rooms
  • The symmetrical, double-pile or Georgian plan of central hall with flanking rectangular rooms

     

Clarke House floor plan

Materials:

  • Most house are made of wood
  • Northeast are of brick, stone, or granite
  • Cast iron may be used for details

Facades:

  • Temple fronts are difinitive with columns on fronts only
  • Doric most common column
  • Rectangular porches and porticoes may be full or partial width and have double or single stories.

Windows:

  • Rectangular, may have double or triple sashes
  • Exterior shutters are common
  • Wimdow surrounds are plain
  • Window on masonry have lintels over them

Doors:

  • Door reflect the trabeated consruction system in shape and ornament
  • Rectangular light above the door with flanking sidelights
  • Glass may be plain or have etched designs

Roofs:

  • May be flat without balustrades
  • Low-pitched gables
  • A few are hipped
  • Some have rectangular or ctlindrical cupolas.

Interiors- Public Buildings

Color:

  • Color comes from material like stone and marble
  • Somber colors for wall, gray or drap
  • Many walls are marbleized

Lighting:

  • Candlesticks
  • Argand lamps
  • Astral lamps
  • Lanterns
  • Large window for natural light

Astral Lamp

Floors:

  • May be masonry, marble, or wood
  • Some spaces have wall-to-wall carpet

Walls:

  • Bold architectural details in important spaces
  • Some walls are wallpapered or painted without a dado

Windows:

  • Plain or complex moldings surround the window
  • In important rooms, lintels or pediment surround the windows

Doors:

  • Doors into important area are grand with columns or large molding
  • Doors may be single or double in paneled wood painted

Ceilings:

  • Some are plain with a plaster rosette
  • Others may have coffers

Interiors- Private Buildings

Color:

  • The Romantic intrest in nature- moss green, fawn brown, stone gray
  • By mid-century colors like lilac, peach, bronze green, sage, and salmon are fashionable.

Lighting:

    • Candlesticks
    • Argand lamps
    • Astral lamps
    • Lanterns
    • Large window for natural light
    • Candelabra
    • Wall sconces
    • Elegant cut-glass chandeliers

Floors:

  • Affuent houses have marble or masonary floors
  • Painted floors to imitate marble
  • Carpets

Walls:

  • Walls are treated in one large expance with paint or wallpaper
  • Bold decortive moldings
  • Baseboards are deeper than before
  • Rectangular stone mantels

Windows:

  • Plain or complex moldings surround large rectangular windows
  • Some have lintels or pediments

Doors:

  • Plain or complex moldings surround the doorways
  • Battered moldings reminiscent of Egyptian gateways
  • Doors are mahogany, walnut, or rosewood

Ceilings:

  • Carved or cast plaster medallions or rosettes embellish the centers
  • Other ceilings are plain

Frunishings and Decorative Arts

Seating

American Empire Arm chair

Hitchcock Chair

Sofa

Tables

Storage

Sideboard

Chest of drawers

Desk

Bookcase

Beds

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English Regency, British Greek Revival

England’s Regency is a creative and productive period for both architecture and the deorative arts. Designers borrow and synthesize forms and influenes from classical, medieval, and exotic sources. Noeclassicaism continues to dominate the arts and architecture, but the Romantic and Picturesque Movements also affect design.

Concepts: During the Regency period follows two paths

1. One thread maintains the flow of the Neoclassical period.

2. The second, later trend, adopts elements from other classical sources.

Motifs

Motifs include pediments, columns, arabesques, grotesques, urns, classical figures, trellises, fretwork, bamboo, foliage, pagodas, pointed arches, fan vaulting, rose windows, sphinxes, sun disk, and vulture, Egyptian heads, and stars.

Architecture – Public Buildings

Types:

  • Monuments
  • Banks
  • Museums
  • Gentelmen’s Clubs
  • Markets
  • Churches
  • Factories
  • Warehouse

Branch Bank of England

British Museum

St. George’s Hall

Royal Pavilion

Site Orientation:

  • Some are part of the Picturesque urban developments
  • The relationship to each other and the street is considered to create focal point

Floor Plans:

  • Plans do not change a lot.
  • Symmetry continues
  • Important buildings often have a variety of sized and shaped spaces.

Materials:

  • Stucco for facing, dominates the period, it resembles stone
  • Brick and stone are used
  • Iron work and cast iron, iron is easily reproduced and can be turned into to any style.

Facades:

  • Usual classical characteristics
  • Temple Fronts
  • Porticoes, colonnades, and pediments.
  • Clean Lines
  • Smooth or rusticated walls
  • Geometric forms, and sysmetrically disposed wing

Windows:

  • May be rectangular or square
  • Small or large
  • Typical sash and French windows are arranged symmetrically across the facade
  • Few have Palladian windows

Doors:

  • Are wood panled with appropraite surrounds
  • Cloumns, pilasters, porticoes
  • Pointed arches and foliated arches

Roofs:

  • May be flat
  • Gabled with pitch dependent upon the style
  • Hipped, Vaulted, or Domed

Architecture- Private Buildings

Types:

  • Villas (between a mansion and a cottage in size)
  • Townhouses
  • Few large country homes

Ickworth

Lincoln’s Inn Fields

 

Site Orientation:

  • Some are apart of urban developments
  • Create a series of scenic views
  • Landscape is important

Floor Plans:

  • They are symmetrical
  • Arranged in circular patterns around a staircase
  • More of an open plan

Materials:

  • Brick is dominant
  • Local stone
  • Portland cement is used to replace stucco
  • Ceramic tiles
  • Cast iron

Facades:

  • Wider and taller sash windows and bay windows
  • Simpler door cases
  • Town and country homes are symmetrical with temple fronts
  • Blank walls

Windows:

  • Sash windows are typical
  • Floor-length windows
  • Dark colors highlight frames
  • Some windows have fabric awnings

Doors:

  • Plainer then before
  • Fanlights are smaller with simple patterns
  • They are of wood with two to three large panels
  • Glass is usually in the upper part of the doors

Roofs:

  • May br flat, gabled, hipped, or battlemented
  • Some may be domed in exotic shapes
  • Some may have overhanging eaves

Interiors

 

Color:

  • Inside public building comes from materials such as stone  or marble
  • Walls are painted white, gray, or a rich red or blue
  • Usual colors include crimson, saffron yellow, blue, and gold
  • Wallpaper and fabric in homes

Lighting:

  • Interiors are light filled than ever before
  • Larger windows let more natural light in during the day
  • Argand lamp and other oil lamps are used
  • Candles still predominate in most homes

Floors:

  • Most floors are wood boards cut in ramdom lengths and widths
  • Parquet floors imitate Roman Flooring patterns
  • Stone, Scagliola and marble cover only lower floors because of weight

Walls:

  • Architectural details such as columns, pediments, and pilasters, articulate the walls
  • Most have dado, fill, and cornice or frieze.
  •  Spaces between details are often painted or paneled

Wallpaper:

  • The use of wallpaper increases
  • It is block printed on rolls (called pieces) about 11′-6″.
  • Many patterns available
  • Flocked paper are particularly prized for drawing rooms

Chimneypieces:

  • Rectangular chimneypieces are simply treated with reading instead of columns, brackets, or caryatids.
  • Mantels are made of colored marble, scagliola or stone
  • A large mirror or painting usually hangs over the fireplace

Windows:

  • Most have simple molding surrounds
  • Many continue to have folding interior shutters

Window Treatments:

  • Curtains become universial
  • Fabrics include velvet (for dining rooms and libraries), silks, satins, damasks, moreen, moire, and calicoes or other printed cottons.
  • Treatments, especially in important rooms, are composed of layers of fabric

Doors:

  • Interior doors are paneled
  • MAhogany doors have a clear finish
  • Other wood doors are painted to match the rest of the decor.
  • Double doorways singal important rooms.

Ceilings:

  • In public building ceilings may be compartmentalized, beamed, vaulted, or domed with coffers
  • In houses, ceiling may be plain white or a paler version of the walls
  • Some might have a plaster rosette in the center.

Furnishings and Decorative Arts

Seating:

Elbow Chair With Saber Legs

Stools

Bamboo Chairs

Arm Chairs

Regency Armchair

Scrolled- End Sofa

Tables

Console Table

 

Storage

Commode

Chiffoniers

Beds

Lit en Bateau

Decorative Art

 

 

 

 

 

 

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German Greek Revival, Biedermier

Early- 19th century architceture in Germany and Austria continues the Neoclassical development first in the Greek Revial style. The term Biedermier applies mainly to middle class interiors and furniture in Austria and Germany during the period of 1815 to 1848. This style is an adaptation of French Empire.

Design Characteristics:

German Greek Revival: Greek Revival archicture in Germany, like that of other countries, derives its details primarily  from ancient Greek and its forms mainly from Roman architecture.

Biedermier: Interiors display bright colors, good lighting, warm woods, plants, and flowers, contributing to an inviting atmosphere. Rooms and furnishings are small in scale.

Motifs:

These include classical motifs such as columns, Egyptian terms, pediments, Greek key or fret, ancanthus leaves, palmettes, lyers, urns, hearts, arrows, and a stylized Prince of Wales motif.

Architecture

Types:

  • Museums
  • Monuments
  • Gateways
  • Galleries
  • Theaters
  • Prisions
  • Row Houses
  • Apartments
  • Palaces

Floor Plans:

  • Most plans are symmetrical
  • Composed of rectangular, square, or round spaces
  • Status is important concept in space planning

Materials:

  • Northern Germany favors brick, other area use local materials
  • Schinkel introduces colored brick, terra-cotta, and cast iron

Facades:

  • Podia with front or angled staircases
  • Porticoes
  • Temple Fronts
  • Colonnades announce important buildings

Windows:

  • Columns, pilasters, or plain lintels may accentuate rectangular windows
  • These form a grid across the facade

Doors:

  • Porticoes
  • Temple Fronts
  • Both of these define the entrance

Roofs:

  • Low- pitched gabled
  • Some building have domes

Interiors

Color:

  • Light and bright
  • Green, blue, yellow, gray, and brown

Lighting:

  • Natural light from large windows
  • Lanterns
  • Chandeliers
  • Few people can afford oil lamps

Floors:

  • Wood planks
  • Occasionally parquet
  • Wall-to-wall carpet or area rugs

Walls:

  • Paint
  • Wallpaper

WindowTreatment:

  • Simple white muslin swags
  • multiple brightly colored swags
  • Floor length curtains and glass curtain hang under swags

Doors:

  • Plain
  • Paneled
  • Dark Wood with simple painted surrounds

Ceilings:

  • Usually plain gray or white
  • Wallpaper borders
  • Plaster work

Furnishings and Decorative Arts

New furniture piceces include plant stands, tables for birdcages, magazine racks, and vitrines ro display treasured objects.

Seating:

Sofa

Tables

Storage

Beds

Decorative Arts

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Industrial Revolution

The industrial Revolution begins in England in the second half of the 18th century and spreads throughout Europe, North America, and British territories world wide. Continuing through the 19th century with rapid growth and significant urban expansion, societies are transformed from agarian economies to industral ones.

Motifs

They generally relate to the period  influences and vary within delevopments and countries. They often emphasize technology and are illustrated on gates, porches, balconies, columns, hardware, chimneypieces, and furnishings.

Architecture

Public Buildings

Types:

  •  Railway stations
  •  Exinition halls
  •  Shopping arcades
  •  Department stores
  •  Office buildings
  • Factories
  • Warehouses
  • Industrial buildings

 

Site Orientation:

  •  These buildings are sited on urban streets usually in the heart of the city.

Floor Plans:

  • Plans for railway stations, shopping arcades, and other buildings like these grow out of function.
  • Most continue traditional planning.
  • Central vertical circulation cores and partitioned walls.
  • Large public areas .

Materials:

  • Brick in more colors and artifical stone.
  • The use of wrought iron and cast iron decoratively and structurally.

Construction:

  • They may exhibit the use of iron and glass for the entire structure or only roofs and walls.
  • Prefabricated stadardized parts are more commonplace as the century progresses.
  • Cast iron Skeleton  for tall buildings
  • Introduction of the Elevator in New York City by Elisha Graves Otis.
  • Near the end on the 19th century architects introduce iron and steel skeleton covered by masonary facades.

Facades:

  • Exhibit architectural features from past styles.
  • Classical Ordering
  • design regularity
  • Monumental Scale
  • Lack of ornamentation

Windows:

  • Large expanses of glass
  • symmetral in scale, shape, and placement.

Doors:

  • Grand, prominent entry doors define front facade
  • Announce the public circulation path
  • Other doors support entry and exit on various sides of the building

Roofs:

  • They are based on the particular building type and location.
  • Office buildings have flat rooflines with cornices.
  • Railroad stations display multiple roof heights and forms.

Private Buildings

Types:

  • Apartment buildings and residential construction expands
  • This helps develops the middle class.

Mail-Order Houses:

  • House desigs copied or ordered by mail from pattern books, trade catalogs, ect.
  • This becomes more common as the 19th century progresses.

Site Orientation:

  • Builders site apartments in urban areas because of population expansion is the greatest.
  • Arranged around a city park, prominent streets, and waterways.
  • In the 1840s and 1850s because of over crowding they expanded into the suburbs

Floor Plans:

  • Public and private spaces are more carefully separated.
  • Large homes have new rooms such as double parlors and conservatory.
  • Bathroom become more common through the century.
  • Other types of heating sources appear including central heat with radiators.

Facades:

  • Apartments often illustrate a traditional image based on architectural featuresof past styles
  • They are plainer, less ornamented
  • Houses vary in design concept, but generally represent popular historical revival styles.

Interiors

Public Building:

 

Material:

  • They may repeat the exterior materials
  • Varing from structure to structure
  • Impressive materials are used on important structures such as Hotels and office buildings
  • Lesser materials are used in faxtories and industral complexes.

Lighting:

  • Commercial interiors incorporate natural light and skylights,
  • improvements in artifical lighting in thhe form of kerosene , oil, gas, and electric fixtures.
  • The Argand Lamp was invented

Floors:

  • Are of wood, tile, stone, and masonary
  • Designs are in simple or complex patterns
  •  wall to wall carpeting increases

Heating:

  • Wood- but=rning fireplaces remain common
  • Coal grates start to appear
  • Franklin stoves
  • Centeal heating is started

Private Buildings:

 Color:

  • Hues are brighter and come from synthetic pigment.
  • new hues include chrome yellow, ultramarine blue, and bright green.
  • Colors reflect the change in lighting

Lighting:

  • They use kerosene oil, gas, and electric lighting fixtures.

Wallpaper:

  • Introduction of continuous rolls of machine made paper.
  • smaller repeats with thinner inks on standard sizes.

Furnishing and Decorative Arts

Types:

  • Multicompartmented desks
  • Filing Cabinets
  • Iron Seating
  • Plant Stands
  • Tables
  • Chairs
  • Beds

Materials:

  • Papier- Mache
  • Coal
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Rubber
  • Wood

Seating:

Garden Furniture

Office Chair

Chairs in Papier- Mache

Office Furniture

Beds

Industrial Revolution Paintings

 

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Late Neoclassical- Directoire, French Empire

Neoclassicism dominates the period, although it changes in responce to political and social developments. Little important building takes place, so interiors and furniture, manifest stylistic developments. In interiors and furniture, the simple, plainer Directoire defines the beginning of the post Revolutionary period and evolves into the heavier, more majestic Empire.

Design Characteristics/ Motifs

Directoire: Characteristics generally reflects the charm and grace of Louis XVI. Forms and motifs are simple and originate in symbols of the Revolution and ancient Greece and Rome.

Empire: Characteristics and protypes derive from the grandeur of Egypt and Rome. Interiors and furniture become pompous, formal, and more masculine, and these forms reveal this change  more than architecture does.

Motifs

These include the classical figure, acanthus, leaf, swag, rinceau, rosette, anthemion, scroll, arabesque, cartouche, vase, and lyre.

Directoire Motifs: lozenges, rosettes, spirals, and symbols of the Revolution, such as the oak leaf and clasped hands.

Empire Motifs: Roman motifs emerge such as animal legs, swans, caryatids, chimeras, and monopodia. Military symbols such as stars, swords, spears, helmets, and x shapes. Additional motifs are millitary icons, swords, and symbols of Napoleon and Josephine , such as the honeybee, laurel wreath. letter N, eagle, amd swan.

Architecture

Types:

  • The most common building is some form of Monument to Napolean .
  • The Arc de Triomphe de l’Etoile monument to Napolean.
  • New building type are not introduced.

Site orientation:

  • To creat a more imperial Paris, Napoleon commands that the areas around the Louvre to be clear because he wanted open space.
  • He also orders the restoration of public gardens.
  • Roof passages between block and luxuey shops.

Floor Plans:

  • Most Public and Private buildings plans are rectangular in form symmertically distruted at least along one axis
  • Residences follow earlier patterns, with emphasis on formality, rank, and status.
  • Plans are organized around public and private apartments.

Materals:

  • Most new buildings are of stone
  • Cast iron, used for bridges. domes, and structural support

Facades:

  • Scale is monumental.
  • Most buildings are raised on podia t oemphasize their importance.
  • Arcades or columns may completely surround the building.
  • Lesser buildings often have Palladian columns.

Windows:

  • Rectangular windows, large and small, delineate facades of both state and lesser buildings
  • French windows allow access to porches or balconies.
  • Palladian windowa appear on less-important buildings.

Doors:

  • Columns, pilasters, and pediments identify doorways.
  • Some entrances have a monumental portico.
  • Arcaded walkways are common

Roofs:

  • Are flat with balustrades.
  • Pyramidal or gabled with a low pitch.

Interiors

Color:

  • Directoire- soft and muted blues, grays, and greens.
  • Consulate years- rich reds, blues, and grays.
  • Empire-  saturated; deep red, magenta, blue, green, yellow, and purple.

Lighting

  • Fixtures include candlesticks, candelabra, applique, lustre, lanterns, gueridon, and oil lamps.
  • Classical motifs embellish the surfaces.
  • Chandeliers are luxury items for formal spaces and rooms of state.

Floors:

  • Floors are wooden boards or parquet.
  • Entrances, bathrooms, and dining rooms are sometimes black and white marble.
  • Middle-class homes use small red tiles.

Walls:

  • Retain classical proportions and details with emphasis on the chimneypiece.
  • Symmetrical compositions of paneling with decorated centers are typical.
  • A dado forms the base, and the wall is capped by a frieze and cornice.

Wallpaper:

  • The use of wallpaper increases, particulary in public buildings.
  • Patterns include small repeating designs, stripes, borders, architectural details imitations of textiles and drapery, flocked papers, and irise or shaded papers.

Chimneypieces:

  • Mantels usually are of white, black, red, or brown marble.
  • Shelf supported by columns, pilasters, consoles, caryatids, or winged lions.
  • Above the mantel, there is a large painting, ,mirrior, or window.

Window Treatments:

  • They feature elaborate fringed and tasseled swags and festoons draped over rods.
  • Pair of windows may be treated as one continuous drapery.
  • Muslin or other thin fabrics hang close to the glass.

Doors:

  • Are paneled in mahogany often with gilded moldings.
  • Important doorways have painted or inlays to match the interior.
  • a complete  entablature typically surmounts  doorways.

Ceilings:

  • Important rooms are are the most heavily decorated.
  • Guilding and painting are also in only imoortant rooms.

Furnishings and Decorative Arts.

Seating:

Bergere with swans

Tables:

Pier Table

Beds

Textiles

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