The industrial Revolution begins in England in the second half of the 18th century and spreads throughout Europe, North America, and British territories world wide. Continuing through the 19th century with rapid growth and significant urban expansion, societies are transformed from agarian economies to industral ones.
They generally relate to the period influences and vary within delevopments and countries. They often emphasize technology and are illustrated on gates, porches, balconies, columns, hardware, chimneypieces, and furnishings.
- Railway stations
- Exinition halls
- Shopping arcades
- Department stores
- Office buildings
- Industrial buildings
- These buildings are sited on urban streets usually in the heart of the city.
- Plans for railway stations, shopping arcades, and other buildings like these grow out of function.
- Most continue traditional planning.
- Central vertical circulation cores and partitioned walls.
- Large public areas .
- Brick in more colors and artifical stone.
- The use of wrought iron and cast iron decoratively and structurally.
- They may exhibit the use of iron and glass for the entire structure or only roofs and walls.
- Prefabricated stadardized parts are more commonplace as the century progresses.
- Cast iron Skeleton for tall buildings
- Introduction of the Elevator in New York City by Elisha Graves Otis.
- Near the end on the 19th century architects introduce iron and steel skeleton covered by masonary facades.
- Exhibit architectural features from past styles.
- Classical Ordering
- design regularity
- Monumental Scale
- Lack of ornamentation
- Large expanses of glass
- symmetral in scale, shape, and placement.
- Grand, prominent entry doors define front facade
- Announce the public circulation path
- Other doors support entry and exit on various sides of the building
- They are based on the particular building type and location.
- Office buildings have flat rooflines with cornices.
- Railroad stations display multiple roof heights and forms.
- Apartment buildings and residential construction expands
- This helps develops the middle class.
- House desigs copied or ordered by mail from pattern books, trade catalogs, ect.
- This becomes more common as the 19th century progresses.
- Builders site apartments in urban areas because of population expansion is the greatest.
- Arranged around a city park, prominent streets, and waterways.
- In the 1840s and 1850s because of over crowding they expanded into the suburbs
- Public and private spaces are more carefully separated.
- Large homes have new rooms such as double parlors and conservatory.
- Bathroom become more common through the century.
- Other types of heating sources appear including central heat with radiators.
- Apartments often illustrate a traditional image based on architectural featuresof past styles
- They are plainer, less ornamented
- Houses vary in design concept, but generally represent popular historical revival styles.
- They may repeat the exterior materials
- Varing from structure to structure
- Impressive materials are used on important structures such as Hotels and office buildings
- Lesser materials are used in faxtories and industral complexes.
- Commercial interiors incorporate natural light and skylights,
- improvements in artifical lighting in thhe form of kerosene , oil, gas, and electric fixtures.
- The Argand Lamp was invented
- Are of wood, tile, stone, and masonary
- Designs are in simple or complex patterns
- wall to wall carpeting increases
- Wood- but=rning fireplaces remain common
- Coal grates start to appear
- Franklin stoves
- Centeal heating is started
- Hues are brighter and come from synthetic pigment.
- new hues include chrome yellow, ultramarine blue, and bright green.
- Colors reflect the change in lighting
- They use kerosene oil, gas, and electric lighting fixtures.
- Introduction of continuous rolls of machine made paper.
- smaller repeats with thinner inks on standard sizes.
Furnishing and Decorative Arts
- Multicompartmented desks
- Filing Cabinets
- Iron Seating
- Plant Stands
- Papier- Mache
Chairs in Papier- Mache
Industrial Revolution Paintings