The Greek period came around 776 BC and lasted until 146 BC. Greece exported wine, olive oil, honey and dried fish while importing grain, ivory, faience, glass and purple dye. Famous Greek cities include Sparta and Athens but, what was interesting about the Greeks were their Satellite cities. These cities were started once a larger city reached a certain population. The Greeks were philosophers, poets and artists including: painters, sculptors and potters. This period held a great leap in technology and architecture. There were many great feats of construction in Greece including: the Parthenon, amphitheaters, temples, bouleuterions, athletic spaces and theatres. The Greeks used most of the furniture we use today including: tables, beds, chairs, stools, couches, benches, chests, and cupboards.
Leaf borders and scroll motifs were used extensively in the art and architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. Foremost of these was the acanthus motif. Some say the acanthus, one of the oldest flowers in the Mediterranean area, represents long life.
|Roof ornament: an ornamental edging on the eaves of an ancient building with a tiled roof that hides the joints of the roof tiles|
An ornamental design consisting of repeating and symmetrical figures, often in relief, contained within a bandor border.
Egg and Dart
Common materials of Greek architecture were wood, used for supports and roof beams; plaster, used for sinks and bathtubs; unbaked brick, used for walls, especially for private homes; limestone and marble, used for columns, walls, and upper portions of temples and public buildings; terracotta, used for roof tiles and ornaments; and metals, especially bronze, used for decorative details
A bouleuterion was a building which housed the council of citizens (boule) in Ancient Greece.
The Three Orders
Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement (the stylobate) of a temple without a base; their vertical shafts were fluted with 20 parallel concave grooves; and they were topped by a smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus at the intersection with the horizontal beam (entablature) that they carried. The parthenon has the Doric design columns.
The Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform; The cap is usually enriched with egg-and-dart. Originally the volutes lay in a single plane; then it was seen that they could be angled out on the corners.
The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders, characterized by slender fluted columns and an elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls.