Spanish Colonial Revival

Originating on the west coast of the United States in the late 19th century, Spanish Colonial Revival is a counterpart to the English Colonial Revival in the eastern halh of the United States. Encompassing a range of Spanish and Mediterranean styles, forms, and details, the movement responds to renewed intrest in the Spanish past in California, the southwestern states, Texas, Florida, Mexico, and the Caribbean.

Mission Revival– (1885- 1915) This style of architecture exhibits elements from the California missions such as arcades, domes, bell towers,or courtyards.

Spanish Colonial Revival– (1915-1940s) Bulidings, which derive more directly from Spanish and other Mediterranean sources than from the missions, are usually more ornamented than other styles, door and window decorations.

Monterey Style– (1925- 1955) This interpretation seeks to replicate the 18th century Spanish Colonial Houses that incoprorates the English/Anglo buildings and New England style buildings.

Pueblo Revival or Santa Fe Style– (1912- present) Architecture uses the blocky, geometric adobe forms of Native American and Spanish Colonial buildings.

Motifs:

These include ogee arches, interlaced arabesques, geometric shapes, heraldic symbloes, classical architectural details such as pilasters and pediments, twisted columns, estipite, niches, niche-pilasters, zapatas, foliated or quatrefoil windows, scrolls, garlands, swags, flowers, and foliage.

Ogee Arch

Interlaced Arabesque

Architectural Details

 

Architecture:

Types include city halls, courthouses, hotels, motels, museums, offices, commercial buildings, school and university buildings, movie theaters, motion picture studios, gas stations, apartments, high-style architect-designed mansions, and vernacular builder esidences.

  • Urban public buildings sit upon primary streets or prime locations in cities and towns
  • Floor plans center on or have courtyards and patios.
  • Walls are of smooth or rough stucco, stone, brick, adobe, or concrete.
  • Colors include white, cream or buff, gray, ochre, pale yellow, or pink.
  • Facades maybe symmetrical or asymmetrical.
  • Walls may be flat and smooth or covered with rough-faced stucco.
  • Windows are rounded arches, although they may mix with rectangular sashes or casements.
  • Doors may be recessed or within porches and have red of colorful tiled walkways, most have round arches.
  • Geometric or Curviliner parapet roofs ( Mission-Style) Low- pitched gable or hipped  roofs are most common in all Spanish Colonial Revival Style, execpt Pueblo which alway has flat roofs.

Hotel Ponce de Leon (Spanish Colonial Revival)

Glenwood Hotel now known as Mission Inn (Mission Revival)

Beverly Hills Hotel (Spanish Colonial Revival)

New Mexico Museum of Fine Arts (Pueblo Revival)

Cristo Rey Church (Pueblo Revival)

Interiors:

  • Front and interior courtyards and patios are characteristic.
  • Interiors often display an eclectic Spanish or rustic feeling related to the exteriors.
  • Walls are white, off-white, gray, pale yellow, ocher, or pink
  • Cermic tiles, textiles, and decorative ceilings in bright blue, turquoise, yellow, orange, red, and green.
  • Woods usually are stained a dark, rich color.
  • Electric table and floor lamps, chandeliers, lanterns, and sconces in wrought iron are most typical lighting fixtures.
  • Floors are tiles or dark wood planks.
  • Floors tiles are rectangular, hexagonal , or octagonal in unglazed red or brown clay.
  • Walls usually are smooth or rough plaster with few moldings.
  •  Doors surrounds are rectangular, round arches, or folicated arches.
  • Doors are of dark paneled or carved wood with wrought iron hinges and knobs.
  • Ceilings may be plain and flat, or sloped or arched plaster.

Furnishings and Decorative Arts:

Types associated with Spanish high-style and vernacular furniture of the Renaissance or Baroque are popular for Spanish Colonial Revival. Thses include the frailero, x-form chair and stool, spindle-back chairs, the amario or wardrobe, and the vargueno.

Frailero

Spindle-back Chairs

The Amario

The Vargueno

Tables

Bed

 

 

 

 

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Colonial Revival

Originating in the second half of the 19th century in the United States, Colonial Revival consciously strives to emulate the architecture, interiors, furniture, and decorative arts of English and Dutch settlements in North America. The style adapts elements from America’s colonial past to contemporary lifestyles. Colonial Revival is one of the most enduring of all styles, even maintaining popularity today.

Motifs:

These derive from precedents, but the historical images may be simplified with less detail. Examples include columns, pilasters, pediments, engaged columns, lintels, stringcourses, quoins, urns, acanthus leaves, shells, rosettes, palmettes, and eagles.

Architecture:

Types- Houses are the most common expression of the Colonial Revival. Other buildings include exposition buildings, civic buildings, banks, schools, and even gas stations.

  • Buildings do not replicate the surroundings of the originals.
  • Commercial buildings may have large areas of formal green space.
  • Public buildings floor plans develop from function and contemporary requirements
  • House plans often illustrate openness and asymmetry and combines details from srveral styles.
  • Incorporates one, one and a half, two, or three stories
  • Double-hung windows emulate precursors
  • Shutters frame most wondows
  • Doorways are a defining feature of the style
  • Paneled doors are most common, topped with fanlights and flanked by sidelights
  • Common roofs are gable, hipped, gambrel, and shingles cover them.

Germantown Cricket Club, Philadelphia, PA

West Virginia State Building, World’s Columbian Exposition

Governor’s Palace, Willamsburg, VA

Commodore William Edgar House

Colonel George Waring House – Hypotenuse

The Martha Washington Model Home

Interiors:

  • No room types are particularlly associated with the Colonial Revival
  • Light colors, such as ivory, white, gray, or yellow, dominate in the 1920s.
  • A grayed palette of tans, browns, yellows, blues, greens, and reds copied from existing 18th century colors in Virgina.
  • Lighting comes from contemporary or reproduction fixtures, sconces, or Colonial- style lamps.
  • Chandeliers are used in more spaces than ever before.
  • Floors are wood planks usually in a dark stain
  • Alternatives to flooring include braided rugs, rag rugs, rugs witgh simple floral or geometric patterns, unpatterned rugs, wall-to-wall carpeting, and linoeum.
  • Paneling, wallpaper, and paint are the most common treatments.
  • Interior windows rarely have surrounds or interior shutters.
  • Window treatments range from simple panels to elaborate swags, cascades and cornice boards and tied- back draperies.
  • Door surrounds may be bold and classical or simple depending on the importance of the room
  • Doors may be six or eight panels.
  • Most ceilings are plain or painted white of a lighter tint than the wall color.
  • Some ceilings may have beams and more eleaborate designs.

Furnishings and Decorative Arts:

Typical types of the Colonial Revival furinture includes chairs, tables, cabinets, and beds, most of which emulates many of the earlier precursors.

 

Colonial Revival Bergere Duncan Phyphe style

 

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Classical Eclecticism

During the late 19th century , Classical Eclecticism, as interpreted by Beaux-Arts-trained architects and designers, begains to dominate the design of public buildings and the mansions of the well-to-do in Europe and the United States. Four stylistic variations emerge: Beaux-Arts, Neo-Renaissance, Chateauesque, and Neoclassical Revival.

Beaux- Arts- In all countries aspires to emulate the classical traditions of ancient Rome, the Italian Renaissance, the Baroque, and 17th- and 18th- century France.

Neo- Renaissance- Like earlier Renaissance Revival, Its emulates Italian 16th-century palaces and villas.

Chateauesque- The so called French Chateaux style is a copy from the French Renaissence. This is a more expensive alternative to Queen Anne.

Neoclassical Revival- Emulates either Neoclassical prototypes of the 18th and early 19th centuries or the Grecian idiom in the sprit of Greek Revival.

Motifs:

There are many motifs in each of the four stylistic variations of the Classical Eclecticism period. This includes swags, flowers, figural and relief scupture, dentil moldings, roundels, edd and dart, tracery, pointed arches, griffins and gargoyles, bead molding, triglyphs and metopes, and honeysuckles are to name a few.

 Beaux- Arts Motif

Neo- Renaissance Motif

Chateauesque Motif

 

Neoclassical Revival Motif

Architecture:

Types- There are numerous building types including capitols, courthouses, town halls, government buildings, liraries, museums, hotels, symphony halls, clubs, university buildings memorials, and monuments. Residential includes town houses, row houses, apartment buildings, residential hotels, or country homes.

  • Buildings line boulevards or define civic or city centers.
  • Floor plans are ususlly symmetrical and organized along axes with clearly defined, hierarchical spaces.
  • Buildings are of light- colored masonry such as marble, limestone, or sandstone.
  • Beaux- Arts have a five-part facade.
  • Neo- Renaissance facades are urbane and dignified
  • Chateauesque facades are asymmetrical and Picturesque
  • Neoclassical Revival facades are plainer than the others.
  • Windows are round or rectangular, some have hood moldings and stained or colored glass
  • Doors , all styles have prominent entries, ceremonial approach.
  • Roofs on Beaux-Arts are occasionally mansard or Domes
  • Neo- Renaissance and Neoclassical Revival have flat or hipped roofs.
  • Chateauesque have steeply pitched hipped roofs.

Grosvenor Hotel -Neo- Remaissance

Civic Theatre

Chateau Frontenac (Hotel) Chateauesque

Banque de Montreal – Beaux-Arts

Metropolitan Museum of Art

Jefferson Memorial

Tennessee’s Parthenon

Interiors:

Types include entrance lobbies, courtrooms, senate chambers, executive offices, art galleries, library reading rooms, music halls, and restaurants.

  • Colors return to primary hues from the tertiarty hues of the 1870s. French rooms: whites, blues, and greens. The Renaissance colors are deep reds, blues, greens, and golds.
  • Gas lighting is common, but newly introduced electricity rapidly increases.
  • Floors in public buildings are usually masonary with marble or terrazzo most common.
  • Homes have marble, mosaic, tile, and parquet wood floors.
  • Bedrooms often have wall-to-wall carpet.
  • Marble or limestone usually covers the walls in public important rooms.
  • Wood paneling is used in drawing rooms and dining rooms
  • Tapestries become a popular wall covering
  • Window treatments remain lavish with complicated or swag valances with trim and tassels
  • Single and double doors to principal rooms have elaborate surrounds.
  • Doors are wood panels that are stained or painted tp match the rooms.
  • Ceiling treatments vary and include painted murals, beams, coffers, and plaster designs.

Central Court, Pension Building

Main Reading Room Library of Congress

The Breakers Hotel

Villard House

Marble House

Furnishings and Decorative Arts:

Lighting Fixtures

Vases

Textiles

 

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Romanesque Revival, Richardsonian Romanesque

Corbel tables and round arches distinguish buildings in the Romanesque Revival or the Round-arched Style, which originates in Germany in the early 19th century. Romanesque Revival is a less popular alternative to Gothic Revival in England and North America. During the 1870s, American architect Henry Hobson Richardson creates a personal style that becomes known as Richardson Romanesque. This style is based upon Romanesque structures and other sources, which was the first style to be taken up in Europe.

Romanesque Revival- Difinitive characteristics of Romanesque Revival are round arches and corbel tables used as stringcources or to define rooflines.

Richardson Romanesque- Buildings are of roughfaced stone that gives a weighty, massive appearance. Voussoirs, lintels, capitals, ornament, and other details are often a different color form walls.

Motifs:

Common motifs include round arches, corbel tables, hood moldings, battlements, and rose windows for Romanesque Revival. Richardson Romanesque motifs include round arches, Syrian arches, floral capitals, lozenges, chevrons, and terra-cotta panels of floral ornament.

Architecture:

Types – Romanesque Revival  include  churches, schools, libraries, museums, hospitals, train stations, courthouses, and city halls. Richardson Romanesque include state capitols, offices, department stores, warehouses, churches, and bridges. Residences include roow houses.

  • Site orientation public structures usually are located outside or near city centers.
  • Residences have lawns that surround.
  •  Floor plans (Romanesque Revival) use the three plans Basilica, Latin Cross, and Greek Cross. (Richardson Romanesque) These plans have a new and original openness and fluidity of space.
  • Materials (Romanesque Revival) structures are most often brick. (Richardson Romanesque) use cat iron for structure, Ashlar masonry, fieldstone, brownstone, rocks, boulders, and granite.
  • Facades (Richardson Romanesque) are usually asymmetrical with a horizontal emphasis. (Romanesque Revival) Usually have one or two towers flanking a central portion.
  • Most windows are composed of round arches or rectangular ones.
  • Doors (Romanesque Revival) are plain and carved doors. (Richardson Romanesque) Have a large Syrian arch or triple arches often anounce the entrance.
  • Roofs (Romanesque Revival) are usually flat or low-pitched gables or cross gables. (Richardson Romanesque) Gable roofs with side parapets define public buildings.

Werdersche Kirche

Staabibliothek – State Library

 

Smithsonian Institution

Natural History Museum

Marshall Field Wholesale Store

Allegheny County Court House

Trinity Church- Boston

Interiors:

  • Colors include terra-cotta reds, greens, blues, golds, and browns.
  • Lighting is medieval- style lighting fixtures in brass, iron, or copper are used.
  • Floors may be stone, polished marble, encaustic tiles in colorful patterns, or wood. Carpet in important spaces.
  • Wall treatments include stone, marble, tile, dark wood paneling, wallpaper and embossed leather.
  • Windows are rounded- arches that may have stained or colored glass.
  • Doors are carved wood.
  • Ceilings may be beamed, trussed in the medieval manner, coffered, vaulted or flat.
  • Residence may have painted ceiling decorations.

Senate Chamber, New York State Capitol

Waiting Room, Union Station

Furnishings and Decorative Arts:

Herry Hobson Richardson Armchair

 

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Stick Style and Queen Anne

The Stick Style in architecture reinterprets mesieval half-timbered buildings and the new balloon framing construction method with wooden planks or sticks that form decorative surface patterns on exteriors. Queen Anne originates in England as an attempt to create an image of home, tradition, and middle-class comfort. The highly eclectic, the style combines elements from the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

Stick Style- The Stick Style developes during the 1850s from concepts of the Picturesque historicism, and Gothic Revival theory.

Queen Anne- This is the style of the middle class. Queen Anne includes characteristics from English vernacular, Elizabethan, Tudor, and Japanese architecture.

Motifs:

 Motifs include sunflowers, pediments, columns, spindels, scrollwork, quoins, Flemish gables, strapwork, swags, cherubs, and foliage.

Architecture:

Types- Stick Style: Primarily a residential development few stick- style state pavilions and some churches and resort hotels.

Queen Anne: Public buildings are offices, school, colleges, shops, pubs, coffee houses, hospitals, hotels, and few churches. Private types are manor houses, town houses or terraces, flats, nd worker houses.

  • Materials for Stick Style; wood is primary building material. Queen Anne materials are often brown brick with red brick trim.
  • Facades (Stick Style) stickwork, composed of flat boards. (Queen Anne) They are rarely flat, have a variety of projections, protrusions, and volumes.
  • Windows (Stick Style) one-over-oe and two-over-two are common. (Queen Anne) Use a variety of windows from casements with leaded panes to Palladian and arched windows.
  • Roofs (Stick Style) multiple steeply pitched roofs may be gabled, cross gabled, or hipped. (Queen Anne) Most buildings have a multiplicity of steeply pitched roofs or they can be flat, some have domers.
  • Site orientation for (Queen Anne) have lawns surrounding them.
  • (Queen Anne) Floor plans for commerical structures have no typical floor plan. Residential have irregular floor plans centered on living halls.

Women’s Pavilion

S. Peter’s by the Sea Episcopal Church

Hotel del Coronado

John N. A. Griswold House

Mark Twain House

Carson House

Interiors:

Types of rooms include living halls which consist of the living room, entrance hall, and circulation spaces.

  • Color vary with the interior style chosen
  • Lighting- most houses have gas light in gasoliers, sconces, and portable lamps.
  • Floors are mostly wood with rugs, middle class have carpet
  • Walls are decorated according to the style choosen, wallpaper and paint are the most common
  • Queen Anne chimneypieces usually have broken pediments surmounting shelves for display
  • Window Treatments vary from simple panels to layers of treatments. Lace curtains are fashionable.
  • Doors have simple surrounds, are paneled and stained a dark color
  •  Ceilings are usually a lighter tint than the walls. Queen Anne ceilings may have low-relief plaster decorations.

Molly Brown House

Jeremiah Nunan House

Furnishing and Decorative Arts:

Types – Factory- made office furniture of flat or rolltop desks and chairs is readily available and affordable. Everything seemed to be mail- ordered.

Queen Anne Mantel

Queen Anne Art

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Exoticism

Inspired by revivalism, eclectism, and a quest for novelty in the second half of the 19th century, Exoticism looks non-Western cultures for inspiration and borrows their forms, colors, and motifs.International expositions, books, periodicals, travel, and advances in technology acquaint Europeans and Americans with othe cultures while creating a romantic image of far away lands and people.

Egyptian Revival- The art and architecture of ancient Egypt project a timeless, formal, and ordered appearance arising from a hierarchal socierty immersed in religion.

Turkish, Arab, Saracenic, or Moorish and Indian Styles- Like Egypt, religion is a significant influence on Islamic art and architecture. The design traditions of its various peoples and the aesthetic sensibilities of its artists and builders contribute to its unique form and decoration.

Motifs:

Characteristic motifs are geometric forms typical of Egyptian architecture, columns, and other architectural details, as well as real and fake hieroglyphs, scarabs, Egyptian figures or heads, Egyptian gods and goddesses, lotus, papyrus, crocodiles, cobra, sphinxes, and sun disks. Islamic or Turkish motifs include onion domes, minarets, lattice, horseshoe arches, multifoil arches, ogee arches, peacocks, carnations, vases, arabesques, and flat and intricate patterns.

Cobra

Crocodiles

Oinon Dome

Horseshoe arch

Multifoil arch

Ogee arch

Architecture:

Types-

Egyptian includes cemetary gates, funerary structures, prisons, courthouses, commercial buildings, fraternal lodges

Trukish or Moorish includes synagogues, fraternal temples, pubs, clubs, theaters, music halls, and few commerical buildings.

  • No particular site orientation
  • Designers do not re-create accurate floor plans of any exotic style.
  • Materials are of stone, brick, or wood
  • Facades revel Egyptian influence
  • Dome, Moorish arches, minarets, and colorful tiles define Moorish- style buildings
  • Windows have slanted sides or surrounds in Egyptian Revival
  • Doors in Islamic- style structures may be located within horseshoe arches
  • Roofs are flat or low- pitched (Egyptian) onion domes (Islamic)

Philadelphia County Prison

Temple Mill

Egyptian Hall

Grove Street Cemetery Entrance

Isaac M. Wise Temple

India Building, World’s Columbian Exposition

Corn Palace

Interiors:

Types-

The rooms are particular in fraternal temples and in the early  20th century movie theaters, smoking rooms, billiard rooms, Turkish bathrooms, male-related spaces in hotels and houses, tea rooms, and conservatories.

  • Egyptian colors: blue, green, gold, yellow, red, and black
  • Turkish colors: blues, greens, purples, turquoises, reds, oranges, white, and black
  • Mosque lamps may illuminate Turkish interiors
  • Walls feature motifs of the style chosen
  • Window treatments are lavish and layered and are the same characteristic of the exotic rooms
  • Doors (Egyptian) slanted surrounds and painted motifs. Doors (Islamic- style) have stenciled or inlaid decoration in geometric patterns.
  • Ceilings may have wallpapers or painted or plaster decorations in highly saturated colors.

Isaac M. Wise Temple- Nave

Proscenium

Arab Hall

George Kemp House – Salon

John D. Rockefeller – Smoking Room

Furnishing and Decorative Arts:

The Turkish-style overstuffed upholstery has no prototype in the Middle East as do many Egyptian Revival pieces, such as pianos and wardrobes.

Seating

Horn Furniture

Slipper Chair (new)

Wicker Chair

Tables

Moorish Table

Egyptian Revival Table

Decorative Arts

Clocks

Porcelain Vase

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Second Empire: Rococo Revival

Developing in France, Second Empire is an international architectural style characterized by a mansard roof, pavilions, and bold details. Although evident in earlier buildings, these elements come together in the New Louvre in Paris built during the reign of Napoleon III. In Europe and America, the style carries associations of elegance, sophistication, and complitanism.

Motifs:

Common in the second empire are columns, swags, cartouchs, pediments, and relief sculpture. Rococo Revival motifs include C and S scrolls, female masks, vines, shells, grapes, roses, flowers, leaves, acorns, nuts, and birds.

Architecture:

Types of buildings include commercial offices, government offices, town halls, art galleries, retail structures, theaters, railway stations, and grand hotels. Residential buildingsUrban style manions, apartment buildings, and row houses. A few smaller subuaban or rual examples exist in America.

  • Typical building materials are stone, granite, marble – Europe
  • Brick and Iron-USA
  • Walls and details contrast in material and color
  • Mulitstory buildings have cast iron facades
  • The formal planning reflects the function of the building
  • Floor plans are symmetrical  
  • Mansard roofs return
  • Two-over-two windows are common.

Fichier:Québec - Hôtel du Parlement 3.jpg

Interiors:

No particular room types are associated with Second Empire. The Rococo Revival types includeare the parlors, both public and private, bedrooms, boudoirs, and ladiesretiring rooms.

  • Main colors are usually high saturated colors
  • Crimson, blue, green, and gold
  •  Parlor or drawing rooms may have white and gold furniture covered in blue, red, or green
  • Carpet is limited to bedrooms, drawing rooms, or parlor rooms
  • Draperies are usually curved and soft in appearance

 

Furnishing and Decorative Arts

Seating

Tables

Storage

 

Etageres

Arts

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